3. why does air near earth’s surface flow from the poles to the equator?

In the tropics, near the equator, warm air rises. When it gets about 10-15 km (6-9 miles) above the Earth surface it starts to flow away from the equator and towards the poles. Air that rose just north of the equator flows north. Air that rose just south of the equator flows south As warm air rises near the Equator, for instance, it flows toward the poles. In the Northern Hemisphere, these warm air currents are deflected to the right (east) as they move northward. The currents descend back toward the ground at about 30° north latitude the equator to the poles. Currently, there are three distinct wind cells - Hadley Cells, Ferrel Cells, and Polar Cells - that divide the troposphere into regions of essentially closed wind circulations. In this arrangement, heat from the equator generally sinks around 30° As a result, the warmest air does not reach the poles

Why does air near Earth's surface flow from the poles to the equator? Because air moves from high pressure regions to low pressure regions. Where do high pressure regions form? High pressure regions form where cold air sink toward Earth's surface To compensate for the rising air, surface air flows toward the equator, resulting in convergence and further uplift. Continuity of this circulation results in a global circulation with rising air at the equator and sinking air at the poles In these, it belts at around 30 degrees north and south you get high pressure sinking air which creates areas of clear skies and desert climates now as this air circulates and tries to flow back toward the equator along the surface of the earth or as some of it heads toward the North Pole or toward the South Pole If the Earth was non-rotating, the warm air rising at the equator would reach the upper atmosphere and begin moving horizontally towards the poles. As the air reached the poles it would cool and sink, and would move over the surface of Earth back towards the equator. This would result in one large atmospheri

However the modern conception of the Hadley cell is one where air ascends at the equator while air at an angle of 30° latitude descends, with winds moving towards the equator on the surface, and with winds moving towards the poles aloft to complete the cell The air completes the cycle and flows back towards the equator as the trade winds. In the northern hemisphere, the winds flow to the right and are called northeast trade winds. In the southern.. The movements of air that we call wind are driven by differences in pressure that have their origin in the heating of the Earth's surface by the Sun unevenly - more near the equator and less near the poles

Why does wind between the equator and 30 degrees south come out of the south east? cooled air moves north toward the equator and is deflected toward the west by the Coriolis effect What direction would winds move at the Poles if Earth rotated in the opposite direction Atmospheric Air pressure is the pressure created by the column of weight of the air, above it. The air pressure is normally taken at the sea level, to have a standard. Atmospheric pressure at the Equator or at the Poles: Though the shape of the Earth is assumed to be sphere, it really an apple shape At about 30°N latitude, the air from the equator meets air flowing toward the equator from the higher latitudes. This air is cool because it has come from higher latitudes. Both batches of air descend, creating a high pressure zone. Once on the ground, the air returns to the equator 1. What causes the movement of air worldwide? 3. Why does air near Earth's surface flow from the poles to the equator? THE CORIOLIS EFFECT _____ 6. The circulation of the atmosphere and of the oceans is affected by . a. the rotation of Earth at the equator. b. the rotation of Earth on its axis. c. the rotation of the moon on its axis. d. The rising air masses move toward the poles, then sink back toward Earth's surface near the horse latitudes. The sinking air triggers the calm trade winds and little precipitation, completing the cycle

A Global Look at Moving Air: Atmospheric Circulation

Why is it hotter at the equator than it is at the poles? a. Because the equator is closer to the sun. b. Because the sun's rays travel through more atmosphere at the equator. c. Because the sun's energy is more spread out at the equator. d. Because the sun's rays hit the earth's surface at a higher angle at the equator. e Along the east coasts of the continents, the currents flow from the equator toward the poles. There are called warm current as they bring the warm tropical water north. The Gulf Stream, off the southeast United States coast, is one of the strongest currents known anywhere in the world, with water speeds up to 3 mph (5 kph) The surface ocean currents have a strong effect on Earth's climate. Areas near the equator receive more direct solar radiation than areas near the poles. However, these areas do not constantly get warmer and warmer, because the ocean currents and winds transport the heat from the lower latitudes near the equator to higher latitudes near the poles

Coriolis Effect National Geographic Societ

  1. This flow of air occurs because the Sun heats air at the Earth's surface near the equator. The warm air rises, creating a band of low pressure at the equator. Once the rising air reaches the top of the troposphere at approximately 10-15 kilometers above the Earth's surface, the air flows toward the north and south poles. The Hadley cell.
  2. ation by the Sun, and the laws of thermodynamics.The atmospheric circulation can be viewed as a heat engine driven by the Sun's energy, and whose energy sink, ultimately, is the blackness of space.The work produced by that engine causes the motion of the masses of air and in that process, it redistributes the energy absorbed by the Earth's.
  3. 3. Why doesn't the ocean boil away at the equator and freeze near the poles? - The ocean does not boil away near the equator or freeze solid near the poles because heat is transferred by winds and ocean currents from equatorial to polar regions. 4. Describe atmospheric circulation cells in the Northern Hemisphere
  4. Near-surface winds spiral into low-pressure areas It is maximum at the poles and absent at the equator. Coriolis Force . 13. The Coriolis effect arises because motion is being measured from a rotating (unconstrained) across Earth's surface travel in curved paths. Planes, boats, bullets, air and water parcels, and other objects
  5. For the model, there are three main assumptions. First, the Hadley Cell circulation is constant. Second, the air moving toward the poles in the upper atmosphere conserves its axial angular momentum, while the surface air moving equatorwards is slowed down by friction. Third, the thermal wind balance holds for the circulation (Vallis, 2006)
  6. In the Northern Hemisphere, warm air around the equator rises and flows north toward the pole. As the air moves away from the equator, the Coriolis effect deflects it toward the right. It cools and descends near 30 degrees North latitude. The descending air blows from the northeast to the southwest, back toward the equator (Ross, 1995)

Explain why cities near large bodies of cold water in • Air flows up a mountain. Air expands and cools as it moves into lower pressure. -warm air rises at the equator, cold air sinks at the poles . Simplest Model Fig. 7.14: General circulation on a non rotating earth, sun ove b. Surface air pressure at the equator is therefore higher / lower than it is at the poles. (circle the correct answer) 2. The air that rose near the equator, now located aloft, tries to blow toward the poles. a. Why does the air aloft try to blow toward the poles? This air aloft, which is trying to blow toward the poles, is deflected a bit by. These will flow very slowly in the deep ocean currents. The sun also heats up the air in the atmosphere at the equator. This air will move toward the poles and cool over time. In the process, wind that occurs due to air currents will induce currents at the surface of the ocean Much of the air that rises at the equator does not move directly to the poles. As a result of Coriolis force from the spinning of the Earth, down drafts descends on the 30° latitude to the surface of the earth. Some of this air returns to the equator in the form of surface winds. It thus forms part of

Hadley Cells - Harvard Universit

Surface water moves in to replace the sinking water, thus creating a current. This deep water moves south, between the continents, past the equator, and down to the ends of Africa and South America. The current travels around the edge of Antarctica, where the water cools and sinks again, as it does in the North Atlantic Greenhouse gases warm the air near the surface by 30 degrees C. Oxygen is a major component of the atmosphere. answer choices . The Sun rotates slower at its poles. The Sun rotates at the same rate at its poles and equator. The Sun rotates slower at its equator . The Sun does not rotate. glaciers covered large areas of Earth's surface. The larger the difference in pressure between the pressure zones, the quicker the wind flows. 3) Why are the poles colder than the equator? Explain the multiple reasons. The earth's polar regions are both cold, owing to the fact that they obtain so much less direct sunlight than the equator does. Throughout the year, solar energy heats the equator

In terms of affecting the wind, as air rises off of the Earth's surface, its speed over the surface increases because there's less drag as the air no longer has to move across the Earth's many types of landforms. Because the Coriolis effect increases with an object's increasing speed, it significantly deflects air flows So, at any given fixed altitude above the surface in the troposphere, on average, the pressure will be lower in the colder air columns closer to the poles than in the warmer columns closer to the equator, as suggested by this map of approximate yearly average pressure near 20,000 feet Earth's rotation is called the Coriolis effect. As Earth rotates, places near the equator travel faster than places closer to the poles. This difference in speed causes the Coriolis effect. Wind moving from the poles to the equator is deflected to the west. Wind moving from the equator to the poles is deflected east. Earth's rotatio Pages 614 ; This preview shows page 167 - 186 out of 614 pages.preview shows page 167 - 186 out of 614 pages Effect on Global Climate. Surface currents play an enormous role in Earth's climate. Even though the equator and poles have very different climates, these regions would have more extremely different climates if ocean currents did not transfer heat from the equatorial regions to the higher latitudes

Some of the air sinks toward the surface. Subsidence inhibits cloud formation and this is the reason many large deserts are found near 30N and 30S. Once the sinking air reaches the ground, some flows to the equator, turning west (in the northern hemisphere) as it goes due to the Coriolis force But in polar summer there is constant sun and it is still quite cold. So while the shadow actually makes a difference (polar winter is way colder than polar summer), that is not why the poles are colder than equator. The Earth is 150000000 km from the sun, and the radious of the Earth is about 6500 km, way to small to make a difference the 500 mb flow, the 500 mb flow is also called the steering flow. The cyclone also moves at about half the speed of the 500 mb flow. • The surface low pressure center in diagram above will track to the northeast along the upper tropospheric jet (along the surface temperature gradient Thermal turbulence caused by surface heating is a mechanism by which energy is exchanged between the surface and he flow aloft. This mixing brings higher wind speeds from aloft down to the surface, usually in spurts and gusts. age wind speed near the surface and decreases it aloft. It is the reason why surface winds at mos

Science Final Exam Chapter 22

the movement of air within the atmospheric convection cells generates the Earth's major wind belts. a column of cool, dense air produces high pressure at the Earth's surface. a column of warm, less dense air produces low pressure at the Earth's surface. cool air is denser than warm air so it tends to sink toward the Earth's surface This movement creates an air current, or wind. A jet stream is a type of air current that forms high in the atmosphere. The Sun heats Earth unevenly, creating masses of colder air near the poles and warmer air near the equator. Credit: NOAA/JPL-Caltech. On average, jet streams move at about 110 miles per hour The air at the top of polar fronts that does not return toward the equator moves, instead, poleward. At the poles, this air cools, sinks, and flows back to 60 degrees latitude north and south. These third circulation belts over the poles are known as polar easterlies or polar Hadley cells because they flow in the same direction as the Hadley. Hot air at the equator rises into the troposphere at the equator, creating a low pressure area underneath it that is filled by cooler air from higher latitudes. The hot air cools as it moves toward the poles, and at about 30 degrees north and south latitude, it cools, sinks and circulates back to the equator as the west-moving trade winds

Chapter 11: General Circulation - Atmospheric Processes

Atmospheric Convection: Hadley Cells EARTH 111: Water

  1. Sinking of surface water generally occurs where there is cold air to cool water at surface. This situation found at high latitudes near the poles. At these polar sites, surface waters cool and become dense enough to sink thousands of meters. Sinking of surface waters is a very important mechanism to replenish waters in the deep sea'
  2. Cold water sinks near the North and South Poles. Cold water also flows toward the equator, getting warmer as it goes. As the cold water warms, it starts to rise to the top and sends the warmer surface water back toward the poles. The warm water flowing from the equator toward the poles helps warm the climate in North America and Europe
  3. LICHTMAN: We're going to talk about that more when we come back from this break. Adam Maloof is the associate professor of geosciences at Princeton University. And if you have questions about this.
  4. A magnetic compass does not point to the geographic north pole. A magnetic compass points to the earth's magnetic poles, which are not the same as earth's geographic poles. Furthermore, the magnetic pole near earth's geographic north pole is actually the south magnetic pole. When it comes to magnets, opposites attract
  5. Hadley cell: rising air near the equator and sinking air near 30 latitude, driven by energy from the sun as warm air rises over equator and cold air sinks over the poles. Surface high pressure area is located at the poles and a broad trough of surface low pressure still exists at the equator. surface low pressure still exists at the equator. 2

8.2 Winds and the Coriolis Effect - Introduction to ..

In its most simple form we can imagine that heated air at the equator rises up, and spreads north and south towards the poles. It gradually cools, sinks down in the polar regions, and then flows across the Earth surface to the equator. There it heats up again and the convective cycle is repeated. This is what would happen if the Earth did not. ENSO states are 3: normal conditions, La Niña, and El Niño. Given that Coriolis force is minimal around the equator, other wind drivers are more important. El Niño (La Niña) occurs when the tropical Sea surface Temperature (SST) in the central and eastern Pacific ocean is warmer (cooler) than the multi-decadal climate average Simultaneously, cold and dense air at the poles sinks and starts to flow toward the Equator, replacing the warm air rising in this region. This creates the single cell circulation model possible only on a non-rotating Earth (fig. 2-11) Section. 8.1 The Atmosphere And Ocean Interact With Each Other 8.2 The Atmosphere Is Composed Mainly Of Nitrogen, Oxygen, And Water Vapor 8.3 The Atmosphere Moves In Response To Uneven Solar Heating And Earth's Rotation 8.4 Atmospheric Circulation Generates Large-scale Surface Wind Patterns 8.5 Storms Are Variations In Large-scale Atmospheric.

An ocean gyre is a large system of circular ocean current s formed by global wind patterns and forces created by Earth's rotation . The movement of the world's major ocean gyres helps drive the ocean conveyor belt.. The ocean conveyor belt circulates ocean water around the entire planet Figure 2.21 - Precession affects the orientation of a spinning object's axis but not the amount of its tilt.Credit: The Cosmic Perspective. Because changes in the orientation of Earth's axis also mean changes in the orientation of Earth's equator (because the equator is always 90° away from the poles), precession gradually shifts the positions in Earth's orbit where the equinoxes.

meteorology - Why does the Hadley cell descend at 30

  1. Ocean currents are the horizontal continuous flow of a mass of water from one place to another. They are of 2 types - warm and cold ocean current. The cold currents are absent in the northern part of the Indian Ocean. Cold ocean current flows from polar region to equator. The Indian Ocean is land-locked in the North
  2. The visible surface of Jupiter is divided into several bands parallel to the equator. There are two types of bands: lightly colored zones and relatively dark belts. The wider Equatorial Zone (EZ) extends between latitudes of approximately 7°S to 7°N. Above and below the EZ, the North and South Equatorial belts (NEB and SEB) extend to 18°N and 18°S, respectively
  3. $\begingroup$ Re The equatorial bulge from the centrifugal force of the Earth's rotation does make gravity slightly less at the equator than at the poles.. No it doesn't, the surface gravity strength is related to the local mass, not the equator, see NASA's Earth gravity visualisation. There is no correlation at all between gravity strength.
  4. g even faster; the Arctic has warmed by more than 3.5 degrees Fahrenheit during the same time period. It was previously thought that amplified polar war
  5. It's a combination of several facts: Air has to be at higher pressure down low because it's supporting the weight of the air above it. That means it must be denser down low. As a parcel of air moves up or down, it's more or less compressed and.
  6. At the same time, air moving away from the poles moves slower than the earth's surface beneath it. Now let's introduce a low-pressure system to the scenario. The air from both the equator and polar region will be pulled towards and start rotating around the low-pressure system (Air always flow from an area of high pressure to an area of low.
  7. Winds and ocean currents play a big role in redistributing heat. This figure shows sea surface wind speed, as derived from a NASA's satellite (Aqua) for the month of November, 2004. The large-scale pattern of surface ocean currents is set up by winds. Note the variations with latitude. Look back at the Hadley circulation and think about the.

That's why the deflection due to the Coriolis force is greater for an air mass near one of the poles than for an air mass near the equator. In fact, if an air mass is exactly at the equator. • The warm surface water results in moist air and more rainfall. Which of the following are true of the transfer of thermal energy in the oceans? Select the three correct answers.(2 points) • Energy is absorbed more than radiated near the poles. • Energy is carried from the equator to poles in deep ocean currents. • Energy Is Absorbed. The image is a cross-section showing how air near the Earth's surface generally moves. It also shows how the polar jet stream tends to cause rain, while the subtropical jet stream tends to bring dry weather. The bottom of the image shows the latitude—the approximate distance from the equator—of each jet stream's average position 3. Why is solar energy input greater near the equator than near the poles? I. The longer path through the atmosphere at the poles decreases solar energy. II. Solar energy is spread over a smaller area at the equator. III. There is higher albedo at the equator than at the poles. a. I and II only. b. II only. c. II and III only. d. I, II, and III. Years of research and observation have convinced him that the Earth's Heat Flow Engine, which drives the outer crustal plates, is also an important driver of the Earth's climate. He received a BS in Geology from Northern Illinois University in 1973 and an MS in Geology from Idaho State University in 1976

Video: Global atmospheric circulation - Polar, Ferrel and Hadley

25 Questions Show answers. Question 1. SURVEY. 30 seconds. Report an issue. Q. The Coriolis effect is the curving of the path of a moving object in Earth's atmosphere that is caused by Earth's rotation When winds generally flow away from the equator and towards the poles what transfer of wind does this cause? an energy transfer, with heat energy moving away from the equator. Studyisland question Global Winds. We'll start at Earth's equator, where solar radiation is the highest year around. Air near the equator is warmed and rises because it is less dense (mass/unit volume) than the air around it as shown in Figure 21 below. Figure 21. Air near the equator is heated and rises as indicated by the red arrows

The air parcel cools as it rises, releasing latent (stored) heat and moisture, forming clouds. When the air parcel reaches the edge of the troposphere, about 10 kilometers above Earth, it turns and begins to spread towards the Poles. At about 30˚ latitude the air begins to sink, or subside 60 seconds. Report an issue. Q. Large oceans moderate the climatic temperatures of surrounding coastal land areas because the temperature of ocean water changes. answer choices. rapidly, due to water's low specific heat. rapidly, due to water's high specific heat. slowly, due to water's low specific heat If the sun is high in the sky, a lot of light energy hits each square kilometer of the earth's surface and warms the air above. If the sun is low in the sky, the energy is splurged out across the land; so there is less energy falling on the same unit area (Figure 1.1a)

Oceanography chapter 6 Flashcards Quizle

  1. Figure 7p-1: Simplified one-cell global air circulation patterns. As described in the diagram above, surface air flow is from the poles to the equator. When the air reaches the equator, it is lifted vertically by the processes of convection and convergence . When it reaches the top of the troposphere, it begins to flow once again horizontally.
  2. The rotational force of the earth causes movement of ocean water near the equator in opposite direction to 'the west to east rotation of the earth and thus equatorial currents are generated. These currents flow from east to west.Some ocean water moves in the direction of the rotation of the earth i.e. from west to east and thus counter equatorial currents are also formed
  3. The locations of the major pressure and wind systems on the Earth are fixed by the poles and Equator . 0014. The lifting of air and the resulting formation of clouds and rain is more gentle -- gradual -- for a cold front Very humid air near the surface is a necessary ingredient for severe thunderstorms because high humidity makes the rising.
  4. Based upon the earth's circumference at different latitudes the velocity at which we move east in a 24-hour rotation decreases from over 1,000 mph (1,600 km/h) at the equator to zero at the poles. However, air moving toward the poles retains its eastward momentum while the earth's rotational velocity decreases beneath it
  5. Ocean currents act much like a conveyor belt, transporting warm water and precipitation from the equator toward the poles and cold water from the poles back to the tropics. Thus, ocean currents regulate global climate, helping to counteract the uneven distribution of solar radiation reaching Earth's surface

Desert formation in these particular latitudes is primarily due to complex global air-circulation patterns caused by the rotation of the earth on its axis (earth moves at great speed near the equator and slowly near the poles), the seasonal tilting of the earth in relation to the sun, and other factors. 2 Air pressure is not uniform across the planet, however. The normal range of the Earth's air pressure is from 970 MB to 1,050 MB.   These differences are the result of low and high air pressure systems, which are caused by unequal heating across the Earth's surface and the pressure gradient force

Define air pressure

  1. 3. Why are the coldest places on earth found at the poles? a. great amount of gaseous particles trap heat from the surface b. great amount of thermal radiation is received by these areas c. less amount of thermal radiation is received by these areas d. less amount of gaseous particles trap heat from the surface 4
  2. The air eventually stops rising and spreads north and south towards the Earth's poles. About 2000 miles from the equator, the air falls back to Earth's surface blowing towards the pole and back to the equator. Six of these large convection currents cover the Earth from pole to pole
  3. Thus, when velocity of air increases, pressure of the air decreases. Question 3. Why air blows ? Explain with diagram. Answer: Area near the Equator receive maximum heat of sun. Due to this, the air near the Earths surface gels heated. Hot air goes up and the cold air from the pole starts flowing to take that place
  4. The ground surface radiates longwave energy to the sky, and net radiation becomes negative. The surface cools. This means that air near the surface also cools, as we saw in Figure 3.6. If the surface stays cold, a layer of cooler air above the ground will build up under a layer of warmer air, as shown in Figure 3.11
  5. Warm air is less dense than cold air. And gravity exerts equal pressure worldwide, so atmospheric pressure is the same worldwide, weather systems aside. Therefore, the same amount of air molecules over the equator must extend further upward than the air molecules in the coldest regions on Earth, the poles. Thus, the atmosphere is thickest and.
  6. The sun heats the Earth unevenly, primarily because the Earth is covered by water and land that heat and cool at different rates. Moreover, the equator heats more intensely than the poles. The Earth is also tilted on its axis, creating seasonal differences at specific latitudes. Another reason why the Earth is heated unevenly is due to its.

Air Movement Earth Science - Lumen Learnin

Cold surface polar air travels toward the equator driven by a horizontal pressure gradient, while warm air at the equator flows towards the poles. The warm air at the equator rises to the tropopause, where it is forced to move toward the poles. The Coriolis effect acts on the winds flowing toward the poles, deflecting them toward the right. Applied to the Earth. The force affecting the motion of air sliding over the Earth's surface is the horizontal component of the Coriolis term. − 2 Ω × v {\displaystyle -2\, {\boldsymbol {\Omega \times v}}} This component is orthogonal to the velocity over the Earth surface and is given by the expression

Near the equator the sea level pressure is low and the area is known as equatorial low. Along 30° N and 30° S are found the high-pressure areas known as the subtropical highs. Further pole wards along 60° N and 60° S, the low-pressure belts are termed as the sub polar lows. Near the poles the pressure is high and it is known as the polar high Wind is Produced by the Uneven Heating Between Equator and Poles of Earth. The regions close to the equator of earth get the maximum heat from the sun, so the air in equatorial regions gets heated and becomes warm . The warm air rises in the equatorial regions of earth creating an area of low air p ressure Air rises near 60 degrees, creating a low-pressure zone, and falls near the poles, creating a high pressure zone. Just as with the Hadley cells, the air is deflected by the Coriolis force

What are the trade winds? - oceanservice

Equator to Pole Temperature difference in the Northern Hemisphere, 366 day running average and 3651 day centered average. Same as the Above, but for the Southern Hemisphere. What is a bit surprising is that the Northern Hemisphere difference appears stable until the late eighties, whereas the Southern Hemisphere difference is a bit more. Sinking air expands and warms. Rising air compresses and warms. Rising air expands and warms. Q. The planetary winds on Earth are indicated by the curving arrows in the diagram. changes in humidity. changes in temperature. Q. A storm system centered over Elmira, New York, Will most often track toward If you think the sea is the saltiest place on Earth, you are mostly right. Water makes up more than two-thirds of our planet's surface, and 96% of Earth's water is in the ocean Cold air aloft is normally associated with low heights. Surface Pressure chart - near the earth's surface the pressure decreases by about 10 mb for every 100 meter increase in elevation. II. Coriolis Force-- describes an apparent force that is due to the rotation of the earth. Acts to the right in the NH. Zero at the equator increases towards. Heat moves in the atmosphere the same way it moves through the solid Earth (Plate Tectonics chapter) or another medium.What follows is a review of the way heat flows and is transferred, but applied to the atmosphere. Radiation is the transfer of energy between two objects by electromagnetic waves.Heat radiates from the ground into the lower atmosphere

Calculate the force of gravitation between the earth and the sun, given that the mass of the earth = 6 × 10 24 kg and of the sun = 2 × 10 30 kg. The average distance between the two is 1.5 × 10 11 m. Solution: Thus, the earth and the sun attract each other by a gravitational force of 3.56 × 10 22 N. Question 17 When moisture-laden air near the earth's surface comes in contact of very cold objects and form water droplets which stick to the surface of the cold objects is formed. (a) dew (b) frost (c) hail (d) fog Answer: (a) dew. Question 13

The Water at the Earth's Poles Is Cold and Dense

3. Why does the Hadley Circulation move around throughout the year? Learning Goals 1. To understand what a reanalysis model is and why scientists use it. 2. To use reanalysis model data to trace a realistic Hadley cell (demonstrate that this is not just a conceptual figure, but shows up in the real Earth climatology) . 3. Instead the air, which has become cooler by this time, descends and flows back toward the equator near the surface as trade winds. This is how the trade-wind circulation, also called Hadley circulation after the British hobby meteorologist George Hadley (1685-1768), is generated between the equator and 30 degrees latitude, both in the. The Distribution of Temperature on Earth. Because of the small size of the earth compared to the sun and the great distance between the two (149 million kilometres), only a minute percentage of solar radiation—one in two billion parts—is intercepted by the earth. But even this small amount of solar radiation reaching the earth is of great.