Phenoxymethylpenicillin for dogs dosage

Doses - PENICILLIN V POTASSIUM : Veterinary medication

  1. ant adverse reaction following parenteralad
  2. Dogs receiving amoxicillin orally should get 10 to 20 milligrams per kilogram of body weight, once per day, states Merck Manuals. Penicillin is distributed by prescription only, states petMD. Some dogs might experience an allergic reaction to penicillin or experience a loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea or joint pain
  3. Amoxicillin should be given at a dosage rate of 5mg per pound every 12 hours, ampicillin at a rate of 10mg per lb every 12 hours, penicillin G of 150 000 units at a rate of 1 cc per 20 lbs every 48 hrs subcutaneously, and procaine penicillin 300 000 units at a rate of 1ml per 30 lbs subcutaneously
  4. After accurately weighing your dog, your vet will calculate the correct dosage, taking into account the myriad variables involved. Because most lack the resources and capabilities to provide this level of care, pet owners should avoid using penicillin prescribed for other people or pets to treat their dogs
  5. If there is an infected cut on his foot I would strongly recommend you consider having him checked by your family veterinarian. In the meantime, this is what you can do:1- In response to your question, yes, you can give him 1/2 (half) of the 500mg Penicillin V every 8 hours for the next 7-10 days

As an indication of the dosage that your vet will provide, the table below will allow you to check the dosage prescribed to your dog, by your vet. The guidelines state that 5 mg per lb. body weight should be given twice daily for 5 to 7 days or for 48 hours after symptoms subside Medication Conversion Between Dogs And People. Compiled by Delilah Penn . Always check with your veterinarian before administering any human medications to your dog! PRINTABLE PDF OTC (Over-The-Counter) medication dosage conversion . ASPIRIN ~ DOSAGE: 5 mg per lb every 12 hrs ~ COMMON USE: Pain relief, anti-inflammator Administration For treating susceptible infections in dogs, a typical dose ranges from 7-50 mg/kg every 8-24 hours for up to 2 weeks. For cats, a typical dose ranges from 10-25 mg/kg every 8-12 hours for 5-7 days. For horses, a dose can range from 5-20 mg/kg every 8-12 hours for up to 4 weeks A common technique many veterinarians use and you can use to ensure your cat is being administered the right dosage. For instance, if your cat is 9.9 pounds, you should give him 1/2 - 1 tablet size of penicillin. Those cats with a weight of more than 4.96, a 1/2 tablet size is needed. Ask your vet about the right dosage to avoid potential risks

Penicillins in this class are derived semisynthetically and are active against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. However, they are readily destroyed by the β-lactamases (produced by many bacteria). Many members of the group are acid stable and are administered either PO or parenterally Method of administration Phenoxymethylpenicillin 250 mg Film-Coated Tablets are for oral use. Each tablet should be swallowed whole with water, at least 30 minutes before food, as ingestion of phenoxymethylpenicillin with meals slightly reduces the absorption of the drug. The usual dosage recommendations are as follows

What Is the Correct Dosage of Penicillin for Dogs

  1. Penicillin for dogs can be prescribed for various infections, which are typically caused by bacteria.Penicillin is commonly used in human medicine, but may have various veterinary uses also. Even if penicillin can have a number of benefits, the drug may also have side effects, which can be serious
  2. What to Do If You Miss a Dose. Give the dose as soon as possible. If it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose, and continue with the regular schedule. Do not give your pet two doses at once. Call your veterinarian if you have any questions. Side Effects. Penicillin has a wide margin of safety
  3. utes before or 2 hours after food, as ingestion of Phenoxymethylpenicillin with meals slightly reduces the absorption of the drug. Phenoxymethylpenicillin 250mg is approximately equivalent to 400,000 units. The usual dosage recommendations are as follows

Go to the dosage. The single dose for dogs, small ruminants and pigs is identical. For each unit of mass (kg) take 10 mg of solution. This dosage is optimal for an adult animal. For young (up to 1 year old) a dose of 20 mg per 1 kg is used.. Security and Personal Care Measure Amoxicillin is used to treat the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary systems of dogs, as well as skin infections. The typical dosage for amoxicillin is 10mg for every pound of body weight every 8 to 12 hours. Cephalexin is used to treat various infections, but it is primarily used to treat wound, skin, and bone infections Dosage (unless otherwise indicated, dose is the same for dogs and cats) Acepromazine (PromAce and many generic brands) Phenothiazine tranquilizer. Inhibits action of dopamine as neurotransmitter. Used for sedation and preanesthetic purposes. Phenothiazines can cause sedation as a common side effect. May cause α-adrenergic blockade Usual Pediatric Dose for Bacterial Infection. 12 years or older: 125 to 500 mg orally every 6 to 8 hours. Comments: -Therapy should be guided by bacteriological studies (including sensitivity tests) and clinical response. Use: For the treatment of mild to moderately severe infections due to penicillin G-sensitive microorganisms The number of substances and veterinary antibacterial preparations (brand names and strengths) approved for dogs and cats in Norway was lower than in Sweden during the study period. For example, veterinary preparations containing cephalosporins, ampicillin or phenoxymethylpenicillin are approved for dogs and/or cats in Sweden, but not in Norway

Try to space the doses evenly throughout the day. If you take phenoxymethylpenicillin 4 times a day, this could be first thing in the morning, around midday, late afternoon and at bedtime. If you're taking it twice a day, leave 12 hours between each dose. This could be early morning and early evening, at 8am and 8pm The usual dosage recommendations for adults and children 12 years and over are as follows: Streptococcal infections - mild to moderately severe - of the upper respiratory tract and including scarlet fever and erysipelas: 125 to 250 mg (200,000 to 400,000 units) every 6 to 8 hours for 10 days. Pneumococcal infections - mild to moderately severe. Dosage and Administration. The dosage for penicillin depends on the body weight of your cat. Generally, a 6000 i.u per kilogram or 1 ml/50 kg is the basic formula used. The dosage should then be increased to 12000 i.u. up to 18,000 i.u. per kg when the infection is deemed serious. For cats between 1-10 kg, a dosage of ¼ ml should be given

The dose of penicillin your pet has been given will have been decided by your vet. They will have taken into account the nature of the problem, your dog's weight and its age. Your vet will administer penicillin in two ways. For serious infections they might give your dog an injection Note that 200,000 units of penicillin G potassium (1.6 units/ug, MW = 372), a modest dose for a 10 kg dog or child, contains 0.34 mEq of potassium. Verify this with your own calculation. At this dose, the potassium is not important unless there is renal failure, but consider a 10 to 20 fold increase in dose as may be used in some cases Use with caution in patients with asthma history; IGE mediated anaphylactic reactions (eg, urticaria, anaphylaxis) reported. Use with caution in neonates; some dosage forms may contain sodium benzoate/benzoic acid, which may cause fatal toxicity (gasping syndrome) when used in large amounts. Adverse effects, including hemolytic anemia, serum. No dose related effects were observed except for a degenerating germinal epithelium in the testicular tubules in high-dosed male dogs. The NOAEL in this study was 5000 ppm in the diet, equivalent to 125 mg/kg b.w. Groups of 8 male dogs, four beagle dogs and four mongrel dogs per group, were fed diets containing 0, 1000, 3000 or 10000 ppm OTC.

Can Dogs Take Penicillin - Everything You Need To Know

Drug Dose Duration of TX Phenoxymethylpenicillin (Penicillin V) <1 year: 62.5mg BD 1-5yrs: 125 mg BD >5yrs and adult: 250 mg BD Long term (at least 2 years post splenectomy) If penicillin allergic: Adults - Clarithromycin Children - Erythromycin Pregnant - Erythromycin Adults: 250mg BD 1month-2yrs: 125mg BD 2-8yrs:250mg B Phenoxymethylpenicillin is a narrow spectrum antibiotic also commonly referred to as Penicillin V or Penicillin VK.It is a phenoxymethyl analog of Penicillin G, or [benzylpenicillin].An orally active naturally penicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin is used to treat mild to moderate infections in the respiratory tract, skin, and soft tissues caused by penicillin G­-sensitive microorganisms 24 June 2018, at 2:31pm. Acute gastrointestinal (GI) disease is the most common reason for the empirical prescription of antibacterials in small animal practice, with a suspicion of Campylobacter infection being the most cited reason (German et al., 2010). Yet it can't have escaped anyone's notice that antibacterial resistance is a growing. Penicillin V (phenoxymethyl penicillin) is administered orally. Approximately 75—89% of the circulating drug is protein-bound. Tissue concentrations are highest in the kidneys with lesser amounts in the liver, skin, and intestines. Small amounts are found in all other body tissues and the CSF

Penicillin Dosage for Canine Infections Cutenes

Penicillin V (Veetids, Pen-Vee-K brands have been discontinued) is an antibiotic prescribed to treat infections like laryngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, and for preventing the recurrence of rheumatic fever and chorea. Side effects include itching, rash, nausea, vomiting, and black hairy tongue. Drug interactions and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety are included Bites and maulings by dogs, sometimes fatal, are a worldwide problem and particularly affect children. Every year 250 000 people who have been bitten by dogs attend minor injuries and emergency units in the United Kingdom, 1 and some of them are admitted to hospital for surgical debridement or intravenous antibiotics A prescribed penicillin or amoxicillin treatment should be given every day for a period of 5 to 7 days. This schedule should be followed even if symptoms are no longer evident. In general, the typical dosage of amoxicillin is 11 to 22 milligrams per 2.2 pounds of the cat's weight each day. If basing the dosage on this scale, the following. Typical dosage: 125-250 mg taken two times per day. Child dosage (ages 0-11 years) It hasn't been confirmed that this drug is safe and effective for use in people younger than 12 years

Can I give penicillin prescribed for a person to a dog

  1. al pain. Acute breathing difficulty-initial management. Acute renal failure
  2. For dogs, the dose of amoxicillin was 22 mg/kg every 12 hours orally. Dogs: Skin, soft tissue (gram-positive cocci) Ampicillin: ≤ 0.25 - ≥ 0.5: Ampicillin is used to test for susceptibility to amoxicillin and hetacillin. Systemic breakpoint derived from microbiological, PK-PD data. For dogs, the dose of amoxicillin was 22 mg/kg every 12.
  3. Adult: Oral: Susceptible infections: 125-312 mg 4-6 hrly. IM/IV: Susceptible infections: 0.6-3.6 g/day in 4-6 divided doses. IV: . Bacterial endocarditis: 7.2-12 g/day in divided doses. Intrapartum prophylaxis against group B Streptoccocal infection in neonates Initial: 3 g, followed by 1.5 g 4 hrly until delivery
  4. Gentamicin 7.5 mg/kg (360 mg) IV daily ( < 10 years) 6 mg/kg (360 mg) IV daily (≥10 years) 4-6 weeks. Gentamicin 1 mg/kg (80 mg) IV 8H for 1-2 weeks when used only for synergy. (Gentamicin monitoring is generally not required with low dose in this setting) Artificial valve, post-surgery or suspected MRSA 4

Antibiotics For Dogs - Amoxicillin, Penicillin, And Probiotic

  1. Antibiotics for Dogs and Cats - 1800PetMeds - 7 hours ago. Penicillin Injectable is a suspension of penicillin G procaine in 100, 250, and 500 mL multiple dose vials. Each mL is designed to provide 300,000 units of penicillin G as procaine in a stable suspension
  2. PENICILLIN SERUM LEVELC IN THE DOG FOLLOWING ORAL DOSAGE WITH A CALCIUM SALT OF PENICILLIN V PENICILLIN SERUM LEVELC IN THE DOG FOLLOWING ORAL DOSAGE WITH A CALCIUM SALT OF PENICILLIN V English, P. B. 1958-07-01 00:00:00 Veterinary School, Uniwrsity of Queenslnnd. Introduction Method The penicillin used in the experiment was a commercial preparation. in the form of compressed tablets, each of.
  3. The usual dosage recommendations for adults and children 12 years and over are as follows: Streptococcal Infections. Mild to moderately severe - of the upper respiratory tract and including scarlet fever and erysipelas: 125 to 250 mg (200,000 to 400,000 units) every 6 to 8 hours for 10 days
  4. g discovered in 1928. (ii) The mold belongs to Penicillium notatum. (iii) White crystalline substance, benzyl penicillin, soluble in water. (iv) Benzyl penicillin has a five membered thiazolidine ring and a four membered β-lactam ring
  5. Phenoxymethylpenicillin is an antibiotic medicine. It's used mainly for treating ear and throat infections and for preventing infections in people with sickle cell disease. Its rather long name is.
  6. In addition, 159 patients were treated with 200,000 units orally BID, 143 were treated with 200,000 units orally BID-TID, and 9 patients were treated with an unspecified dose

Video: Medication Conversion Chart Between Dogs and People

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In comparative trials, twice daily cefpodoxime proxetil (dose equivalent cefpodoxime 100 to 400 mg) was as effective as a 3- to 4-times daily regimen of phenoxymethylpenicillin in pharyngotonsillitis, as well as thrice daily amoxicillin (with or without clavulanic acid) or cefaclor against infections of the ear, the upper and lower respiratory. If you have a scale at home, weigh him. Give him 0.1ml per lb of body weight. Try Mox Forte. Works best with respiratory infections. Get the 500mg capsules, mix 3 caps with 30ml of water, give dosage based on body weight 2 times a day, till gone. Refrigerate Oxycare 250mg Tablets are indicated for the treatment of bacterial infections sensitive to tetracycline therapy only. Soft tissue infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus spp. have been shown to be highly sensitive, while respiratory infections caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica are also commonly sensitive

Oxytetracycline medication guide - VetDepo

The typical dosage of azithromycin is 500 mg every 24 hours for 3 consecutive days. Metronidazole. Metronidazole is an antibiotic that doctors and dentists use to treat a number of infections. Adult phenoxymethylpenicillin 500 mg b.d* Child 6-12 years 250 mg b.d Child <6 years 125 mg b.d *If compliance is a problem then 500mg once daily is acceptable. Clarithromycin should be used in penicillin-allergic patients. Recommended dosages: Adult & Child >8 years 500 mg o. Penicillin V potassium belongs to a group of drugs called antibiotics, which stop the growth of bacteria in the body. This medication comes in tablet and oral (by mouth) solution forms and may be taken 2 to 4 times a day, with or without food. Common side effects of p enicillin V potassium include nausea, vomiting, upset stomach, diarrhea, and.

Study finds first possible drug treatment for lymphedema. Collaboration between two Stanford labs has resulted in the discovery of a molecular cause for lymphedema and the first possible drug treatment for it. May 10 2017. Tracey Campbell suffers from lymphedema and is participating in a clinical trial of a drug to determine whether it can. Phenoxymethylpenicillin 250mg Sore Throat Ovulation Headache After Sore Throat Ultrasound involves using an ultrasonic scalpel which emits high energy waves to. Si parla di tonsille palatine (quelle a cui tutti si riferiscono in genere), tonsille faringee (dette anche vegetazioni adenoidi), tonsille tubariche (del. Rash Extreme and unexplained. Dogs may have side effects that include: joint pain, loss of appetite, vomiting, flatulence (instestinal gas), fungal infections and digestive problems. Like humans, dogs can have a similar side effect related to developing a serious allergy. A serious and possibly fatal anaphylactic can occur Moderate Interactions. These medications may cause some risk when taken together. Consult your healthcare professional (e.g., doctor or pharmacist) for more in formation. NSAIDS/CORTICOSTEROIDS. Penicillin V potassium is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections, scarlet fever, and ear, skin, gum, mouth, and throat infections. It also is used to prevent rheumatic fever (a serious condition that may develop after a strep throat or scarlet fever infection and may cause.

Doctors to amoxicillin is a penicillin-type antibiotic used doxycycline is the penicillin was as high-dose penicillin is a streptococci. They're similar to dogs for antibiotic choice and tablets. Eliminating the same family. But many children are caused. A mold, exacerbates that it's good news for penicillin-resistant infections {{configCtrl2.info.metaDescription} On this page about Phenoxymethylpenicillin (AFT) you will find information relating to side effects, age restrictions, food interactions, whether the medicine is available at a government subsidised price on the pharmaceutical benefits scheme (PBS) as well as other useful information Headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, hepatomegaly, jaundice, and laboratory evidence of hepatocellular dysfunction usually appear 3 to 5 days after sulfonamide administration is started, and the syndrome may progreb to acute yellow atrophy and death. /Hypersensitivity reactions to sulfonamides/ Take each dose on an empty stomach - this means at least an hour before or two hours after food. Keep bottles of flucloxacillin liquid in the fridge. The most common side effects are diarrhoea and.

How Much Penicillin to Give a Cat? The Right Dosage You

Penicillins - Pharmacology - Veterinary Manua

However, across the spectrum of dosage of amoxicillin-clavulanate combination, the dose of clavulanate is constant at 125 mg, whereas the dose of amoxicillin varies at 250 mg, 500 mg and 875 mg. Thus the use of low dose amoxicillin-clavulanate in combination with meropenem may be used in part of treatment regime for drug resistant TB & this has. Where To Get Ivermectin In The Uk - Is ivermectin safe for heartworm positive dogs Stromectol sans ordonnance en pharmacie. Accordingly, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin is recommended where to get ivermectin in the uk in patients concomitantly taking cephalexin and metformin DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: For oral administration via drinking water. Pigs: Duration of treatment: 5 days Bodyweight pigs (kg) Dosage of Phenoxykep wsp in grams per 1,000 litres of drinking water 0 - 25 320 26 - 50 400 51 - 100 550 This is equivalent to 10 mg phenoxymethylpenicillin per kg bodyweight Antibiotic Dosing for Children: Expert Recommendations For Children Ages 2 months to 12 years Dosing Recommendations at a Glance Amikacin 15 mg/kg/day IV given once daily Cloxacillin, Flucloxacillin 100 mg/kg/day IV divided in 2 or 4 doses Amoxicillin 100 mg/kg/day PO divided in 2 or 3 doses Doxycycline 5 mg/kg/day given once daily or in 2 doses. Dosage: Prevention: 5 g per 8 L (2 gals) of water for 3-5 days. Treatment: 10 g per 8 L (2 gals) of water for 5-7 days. Contraindications: Should not be used in pigeons, caged birds intended for human consumption. Do not administer to animals receiving monanain, salinomycin or naresin. Withdrawal: 10 days prior to slaughter. Product Shot.

Previcox for Dogs Merial - Safe

Phenoxymethylpenicillin 250mg Film-coated Tablets

One dose after the second birthday At-risk children 12 months to under 5 Oral phenoxymethylpenicillin is the antibiotic of choice, with erythromycin being offered to bitten or scratched by dogs or cats. Penicillin G, the antibiotic of choice for these infections, should be given prophylactically to high risk. Wounds were then rinsed with normal saline. The experimental group was given oral phenoxymethyl penicillin in a dose of 250 mg, four times daily for five days. All patients were instructed to return at two days and five days after the bite, or if signs of infection developed

Penicillin for Dogs - Vetinfo

Penicillin - Pet, Dog and Cat Medication and Prescription

Phenoxymethyl Penicillin 250mg/5ml Oral Solution Sugar

This medicine contains the active ingredient phenoxymethylpenicillin. It is a type of antibiotic that belongs to a group of medicines called penicillins. ASPECILLIN VK is used to treat infections. Disclaimer: This article on getting antibiotics without a prescription is for information purposes only. Be certain to check your local/state/federal laws before attempting any of the information herein

Streptomycin: veterinary use and dosage - General

Dosage is individual depending on a character and a severity of the infection. According to the latest empiric experiences phenoxymethylpenicillin is effective also if it is applied 3 times daily. Usual dosage of V-Penicillin: Children older than 3 years and up to 25 kg of body weight are applied 400 000 IU each 8 hours Take Phenoxymethylpenicillin-AFT for as long as your doctor tells you, even if you are feeling better. If you forget to take a dose: If it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and take the next dose when you are meant to Otherwise take it as soon as you remember and then go back to taking the medicine as you would normall MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up. STORAGE: Store at room temperature between 59-86 degrees F (15-30 degrees C) away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom Further monitoring and dose adjustment in patients with impaired renal function should be performed as for aminoglycosides. 3.2.2 Teicoplanin. Teicoplanin must be administered at a high dosage (10 mg/kg body weight 12 hourly then 10 mg/kg daily). Trough levels must be measured to ensure levels of at least 20 mg/L and repeated at least weekly

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7 Antibiotics Often Used To Treat Infections In Dogs Me

According to Jessie Gill, a medical nurse who specializes in medical marijuana, using some macrolide antibiotics, such as troleandomycin, could potentially interact with marijuana. Marijuana. Azithromycin dosage (5-day course): Children: The recommended dosage is 12 mg/kg once daily for 5 days. Or, alternatively, 20 mg/kg once daily for 3 days. (maximum 500 mg per day) 9. Adults: The recommended dosage is 500 mg as a single dose on the first day, followed by 250 mg once daily for 4 days 1 Antibiotic 1. Dosage and course length 2. Children under 1 month. Antibiotic choice based on specialist advice. Children aged 1 month and over. First-choice antibiotic (give oral unless person unable to take oral or severely unwell) 3 Flucloxacillin 4. 1 month to 1 year, 62.5 mg to 125 mg four times a day orally for 5 to 7 days 5. 2 to 9 years, 125 mg to 250 mg four times a day orally for 5 to. Is tylosin safe for dogs? Is spiramycine a macrolide? What are the side effects of clarithromycin 500 mg? What is erythromycin ophthalmic ointment used for? Brief Introduction to Erythrocin; What antibiotics are macrolides? Does azithromycin for uti work? What should be the azithromycin dosage? What is spectinomycin used to treat? What is.


amoxicillin uk over the counter. amoxil 250/ 5 ml. amoxicillin exanthem dauer. amoxicillin ausschlag absetzen. amoxicillin dla dziecka. amoxicillin lamuna 20. amoxicillin prevent rheumatic fever. amoxicillin dosage 25 lbs. amoxicillin nach zahnextraktion Eating a healthy diet, with a variety of vitamins and minerals from food, can help if you're taking antibiotics. Some supplements, especially vitamins C, D and E, can act as natural antibiotics, although you should check with your doctor whenever you think you may need antibiotics. Read more: What to Eat While on Antibiotics Daktozin Ointment is used for Nappy rash, Eczema, Skin irritation, Hemorrhoids, Minor skin infections, Sunburn and other conditions.Daktozin Ointmentmay also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. Daktozin Ointmentcontains Zinc Oxide as an active ingredient. Daktozin Ointmentworks by forming a barrier on top of the skin that. Urinary tract infections are a common, painful ailment. Resulting from bacterial infections that enter the urethra, UTIs cause pain while urinating and extreme discomfort. Penicillin is commonly used for their treatment

Penicillin V Potassium Dosage Guide + Max Dose

Clindamycin is a powerful antibiotic usually reserved for very serious bacterial infections - of the lungs, skin, blood, female reproductive organs and other internal organs. It carries an FDA black-box warning to alert doctors and patients about possible adverse effects, including swelling of the face and tongue and serious skin reactions List of drugs used to treat the medical condition called Urinary Tract Infection. Click on the drug to find more information including the brand names,dose,side-effects, adverse events, when to.

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Dosage of Ampicillin:. DOSAGE AND DIRECTIONS FOR USE : Sulmetrim Plus NF should be administered intramuscularly or intravenously in cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, horses, cats and dogs. The recommended dosage in all species is 1 ml / 10 kg body mass per day for 3 - 5 days Use the NOAH online compendium to access veterinary medicines datasheet informatio Phenoxymethylpenicillin. 500 mg four times a day, or 1 gm three times a day. 50-100 mg/kg/day in three divided doses; maximum 1 g/dose. Azithromycin (for patients unable to take doxycycline or beta-lactams) 500 mg once a day . 50-100 mg/kg/day in three divided doses; maximum 1 g/dose. Intravenous therapy. Ceftriaxone. 2 g once a day. 10 mg/kg. Penicillin G is a penicillin beta-lactam antibiotic used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually gram-positive, organisms. The name penicillin can either refer to several variants of penicillin available, or to the group of antibiotics derived from the penicillins.Penicillin G has in vitro activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic.