What is first seen in fluorescein angiography

A fluorescein angiogram is a picture of the retina and helps show abnormal blood vessel growth and other conditions. Video: Fluorescein Angiography for Diabetic Retinopathy What to Expect After Fluorescein Angiography The effects of dilating eye drops can last several hours and cause blurry vision and light sensitivity Fluorescein angiography is an eye test that uses a special dye and camera to look at blood flow in the retina and choroid. These are the two layers in the back of the eye. How the Test is Performed You will be given eye drops that make your pupil dilate How does fluorescein angiography (FA) work? Fluorescein is an organic dye. When blue light is shined on fluorescein, it fluoresces yellow-green. We do this commonly when looking at the cornea after instilling fluorescein Sodium fluorescein is added into the systemic circulation, the retina is illuminated with blue light at a wavelength of 490 nanometers, and an angiogram is obtained by photographing the fluorescent green light that is emitted by the dye What to Expect During Fluorescein Angiography Your doctor will inject a contrast fluorescein dye into a vein in your arm. The dye quickly circulates through your bloodstream and will appear in your..

In the normal macula, the capillary-free zone is seen as dark due to blockage of choroidal fluorescence by xanthophyll pigment and tightly packed retinal pigment epithelial cells. The peak phase with maximal fluorescence occurs at approximately 30 seconds and recirculation phases follow A fluorescein angiography is a medical procedure in which a fluorescent dye is injected into the bloodstream. The dye highlights the blood vessels in the back of the eye so they can be.. A fluorescein angiography (FA) is a way of studying what is happening at the back of your eye. The blood in your body flows through tiny blood vessels. An FA helps a doctor see exactly where the blood vessels are in your eye, their size and any problems they might have. This helps the doctor make a diagnosis

Fluorescein angiography (FA) is a medical procedure in which fluorescent dye is injected into the bloodstream to highlight blood vessels in the back of the eye so they can be viewed and imaged. The FA test is helpful for making a diagnosis, determining a treatment plan, or for monitoring affected blood vessels What is Fluorescein Angiography? Fluorescein angiography is a diagnostic technique ophthalmologists use to closely examine the blood vessels and flow pattern at the back of your eye. A colored dye is injected into a vein in your arm, where it then makes its way through the body and up to the smaller vessels of your eye

What Is Fluorescein Angiography? - American Academy of

Fluorescein angiography: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedi

SAMPLE FLUORESCEIN ANGIOGRAPHY INFORMATION SHEET AND CONSENT FORM What is Fluorescein Angiography? Fluorescein angiography is a photographic test of the retina, the 'film' in the back of the eye. A water soluble dye called fluorescein is injected into a vein in your arm, where it travels through the body reaching the eye fluorescein angiography is one of the most commonly diagnostic procedures employed in ocular pathology. Sodium fluorescein (C 20 H 10 O 5 Na 2) is an organic dye, has a molecular weight of 376 daltons, and is 80% bound to plasma albumin. The remaining 20% is seen during angiography. The dye absorbs light in th Fluorescein angiography involves photographing the retina with special filters after injection of a tracer dye intravenously. What is Fluorescein Angiography? Fluorescein angiography is an eye test that uses a special dye and camera to look at blood flow through the retinal vessels

Fluorescein Angiography Equipment & Technique. Timothy J. Bennett, CRA, OCT-C, FOPS. Penn State Hershey Eye Center. Hershey, Pennsylvania. The instrumentation used for fluorescein angiography must be capable of delivering the proper excitation wavelengths and capturing rapid sequence images of the retina as the dye courses through the vasculature Fluorescein angiography (FA) involves the color radiographic examination of the retinal vasculature following rapid IV injection of a sodium fluorescein contrast medium. A special camera allows images to be taken in sequence and manipulated by a computer to provide views of the retinal vessels during filling and emptying of the dye The earliest changes can be seen only with a special test called fluorescein angiography. For this test, a chemical is injected into a vein in your hand or arm while the eye doctor is looking at the back of your eyes with a special instrument. The chemical called fluorescein temporarily lights up the blood vessels The fluorescein angiography process begins when eye drops are inserted into the eye to encourage pupil dilation. The first series of photographs are then taken of the inside of the eye. Next, a yellow, water-soluble dye called fluorescein sodium will be injected into a vein in the arm or hand A Flourescein Angiography is a tool for examining the back of the eye. It can record where the blood vessels are in your eye, their size and any problems affecting them. First, a vein in your arm is injected with a special dye which then travels round your body. Pictures are taken as the dye passes through the blood vessels in your eye

How to interpret fluorescein angiography: 6 types of

  1. e if they are hypo fluorescent or hyperfluorescent
  2. ing the circulation of the retina and choroid using a fluorescent dye and a specialized angiographic camera. DR
  3. Fluorescein angiography is an important technique used when first diagnosing eye diseases that affect the retina. It is routinely used to diagnose age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and diabetic macular oedema (DME)
  4. Narrator: Fluorescein Angiography is a frequently used test that provides valuable information about the eyes, circulatory system, and many conditions that may occur within the back of the eye. Fluorescein angiography begins by injecting a special dye into the arm, within a few seconds the dye travels through the circulatory system and into the.
  5. What to Expect Fluorescein angiography is not painful and is relatively quick to perform. First, the patient having the procedure will have dilating drops inserted into his or her eyes to enlarge the pupil and make viewing the interior of the eye easier. Once the pupils have dilated, the dye is injected, usually into a vein in the hand or the arm
  6. Using Ansco Super Hypan 500 speed film (pushed to 2400), they first tried the technique on rabbits and then reportedly flipped a coin to see which one of them would be the first patient. Alvis lost, so he was the subject of the first successful fluorescein angiogram in a human! Photographs from the first angiogram by Novotny & Alvis

Fluorescein angiography is an eye test that uses a special dye and camera to look at blood flow in the retina and choroid. These are the two layers in the back of the eye. Alternative Names. Retinal photography; Eye angiography; Angiography - fluorescein. How the Test is Performed. You will be given eye drops that make your pupil dilate Demonstration of flow pattern of anterior ciliary arteries. Talusan ED, Schwartz B. With fluorescein angiography of the episcleral region at two frames per second, the wide, tortuous vessels perforating the sclera near the limbus were shown to first fill with fluorescein at an average of 19 s after intravenous injection of fluorescein SAMPLE FLUORESCEIN ANGIOGRAPHY INFORMATION SHEET AND CONSENT FORM What is Fluorescein Angiography? Fluorescein angiography is a photographic test of the retina, the 'film' in the back of the eye. A water soluble dye called fluorescein is injected into a vein in your arm, where it travels through the body reaching the eye Fundus photography and fluorescein angiography 13 tutorial Fundus photography and fluorescein angiography Don Wong, RBP Department of Ophthalmology Cabrini Health. Care Center New York, New York About the author—Don Wong, B.A., RBP, is the chief ophthalmic photographer and man-ager of the Department of Ophthalmology Film-based versus digital fluorescein angiography - historical perspectives. Fluorescein angiography finds its origins in the late 1960s with the publication of an original article describing its use as well as subsequent atlases and textbooks for a medical retinal specialty in its infancy. 1, 6 The landmark text Atlas of Macular Diseases by Dr J. Donald Gass set a new standard for the use.

Five Phases of a Fluorescein Angiogram. The first phase is known as the pre-arterial phase or choroidal flush phase. Fluorescein flows from the injection site to the heart and then, is pushed into the systemic vascular tree. The time it takes for the dye to reach the eye via this pathway is known as transit time Fluorescein Angiography (FA) is a diagnostic procedure that uses a special camera to record the blood flow in the RETINA - the light sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. Your eyes will be dilated before the procedure. Fluorescein dye is injected into a vein in the arm/hand. Click to see full answer FLUORESCEIN ANGIOGRAPHY O F T H E O P T I C DISK J. TERRY ERNEST, M.D., AND DESMOND ARCHER, F.R.C.S. Chicago, Illinois The optic disk vasculature has been stud ied in vivo by fiuorescein angiography.1'2 The technique is especially important for the evaluation of the optic disk in glaucomatous patients but the results have been less than optimal.38 Part of the difficulty is that the optic disk. Fluorescein angiography is an indispensable procedure that can help you investigate the integrity of the retinal vasculature. Some common conditions for which fluorescein angiography is indicated include atrophic macular degeneration, central serous chorioretinopathy, cystoid macular edema, ischemic optic neuropathy and malignant choroidal melanoma Fluorescein angiography has become a very important diagnostic aid in ophthalmology. The principles, technique and interpretation are briefly discussed. The risks of fluorescein angiography include direct ones resulting from injection of the dye as well as possible retinal damage from light exposure during the procedure

Fluorescein angiography - Wikipedi

Many articles 1-6 have been written about the history of fluorescein angiography and its discovery by 2 medical students at Indiana University in 1960. Of the 2 protagonists, David Alvis has written several articles 1,4,5 about the events that took place, whereas the junior student (but first author) Harold Novotny has rarely made a public comment. 3 The story is an interesting one in terms of. Fluorescein angiography helps your ophthalmologist see what is happening in your retina, highlighting any abnormalities that may be present. It is used most often to monitor two conditions: age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the effects of diabetes on the eyes. The images from fluorescein angiography help your doctor decide on the best.

Only for eye problems. So, yes it is. Very useful for ocular melanoma, macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Other than that eye am not an eye specialist nor am Eye an eye surgeon nor am Eye a private eye. Eye would say the eyes have it a.. While its use is still widespread within the medical retina field, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) is increasingly falling out of favour in the investigation of neuro-ophthalmological disease, with the introduction of new technologies, particularly optical coherence tomography. FFA does, howeve

Fluorescein Angiography: How It's Done, What to Expect

The two tests can be carried out simultaneously.First one dye is injected and then the other. Due to the types of filter and the technology that we have we can carry out simultaneous monitoring with both dyes. Fluorescein angiography has many different uses, especially related with vascular pathologies of the retina, such as diabetic retinopathy in its various phases, arterial and vein. First used in the eye in 1961, fluorescein angiography (FA) has become one of the most fundamental imaging tests used in ophthalmology. 1 It helps your eye doctor visualize blood vessel patterns to differentiate between various retinal conditions and also allows him/her to see whether laser treatment might be beneficial Fluorescein angiography is a test which allows the blood vessels in the back of the eye to be photographed as a fluorescent dye is injected into the bloodstream via your hand or arm. It is particularly useful in the management of diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration. The test is done to help the doctor confirm a diagnosis, to provide. Dangersof fluorescein angiography Fluorescein angiography has now been in use clinically for the last eighteen years and during this time several hundred thousand angiograms must have been performed throughout the world. That it is a relatively safe procedure is proved by the fact that the world literatur My first gulp of fluorescein sodium flavored Gatorade! On Wednesday, April 4th, 2014, UIWRSO had their very first Fluorescein Angiography (FA) lab. What is Fluorescein Angiography? It is a test that optometrists can perform by taking advantage of the fact that Fluorescein glows

Frequency of the fluorescein angiography is dependent on the extent of the disease progression and the treatment performed (e.g., photocoagulation). Fluorescein angiography may be performed on the treated eye only at 6 weeks posttreatment and as often as every 8-12 weeks to assist in management of the retinopathy Fluorescein Angiography This test allows your retina specialist to assess the blood flow to the retina. Often this test is required for accurate diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of retinal diseases

Ultrawidefield Fluorescein Angiography in the Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy IRENE RUSU, MD • ARIANA M. LEVIN, BA • SZILÁRD KISS, MD. D iabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of new-onset vision loss among working-age adults in the United States, and its prevalence among Americans aged 40 years old and older is predicted to triple by 2050. 1. Similar to fluorescein angiography, a special dye, Indocyanine Green (ICG), is used to fluoresce layers of the eye to make them clearer in photographs. For the best results, our office uses the Optos ® California imaging device for our angiography tests. What to Expect. With fluorescein angiography, your doctor will first dilate your pupils

Fluorescein Angiography - EyeWik

  1. FLUORESCEIN angiography is a useful tool for the diagnosis of many retinal diseases. It provides diagnostic as well as treatment information by allowing visualization of the retinal and choroidal vasculature. Angiography allows identification of leakage of the small fluorescein molecule in pathological states
  2. Fluorescein angiography revealed the full extent of abnormalities of the capil-lary bed, including microaneurysms, first considered to be a preproliferative are often seen in severe retinopathy. For example, during pregnancy the develop-ment of multiple cotton wool spots is a fairly common occurrence, but after.
  3. ute or so. After that photos may be taken of the peripheral parts of the retina.

Fluorescein Angiography: Purpose, Procedure and Result

During fluorescein angiography, there are many steps Dr. Kaushal will take to make a diagnosis. He will first dilate the pupils and rest the forehead against a support bar. The patient will be fitted accordingly so that the chin sits comfortably on the built-in chin rest to remain still throughout the test Fluorescein angiography (FA) is an imaging modality used to study the circulation of the retina and choroid. About 5 mL of 10% sterile aqueous solution of fluorescein dye (or 2-3 mL of a 25% solution) is injected in the antecubital vein. The fluorescein molecules excited by a blue light (465-490 nm) emit green-yellow light (520-530 nm. Fluorescein angiography demonstrates occult choroidal neovascularization with PED (A). In the early phases of indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) a feeder vessel originating in the juxtapapillary area is clearly delineated (B, asterisk). Feeder vessel and draining vein are indistinguishable in the late phases of ICGA (C) Early hyperfluorescence with late staining of the lesions, often in a wreath-shaped pattern, is seen on fluorescein angiography. 21,23 Leakage from disc capillaries also may be seen. ICG angiography reveals multiple hypofluorescent lesions, some corresponding to the white dots. 3 Fluorescein (FFA) and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography Fluorescein (FFA) and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography are simple diagnostic tests, which involve the injection of fluorescein (yellow) dye and/or indocyanine green into your bloodstream via a vein in your hand or arm, followed by a series of photographs taken over several minutes

Fluorescein sodium is a relatively inert dye and specific drug interaction studies have not been reported. There are few case reports on potential interactions with organic anion transporters (e.g. probenecid) and interference with other diagnostic procedures Indocyanine Green Angiography This is a diagnostic procedure, when a dye is injected into a vein in your arm or hand and sets of digital photographs are taken to display blood vessels at the back of your eye. Sometimes this is combined with (see Fundus Fluorescein Angiography above) Many disorders of the retina can be seen by looking directly into the eye. Some examples of this include: retinal detachment, bleeding, masses, pigment changes. There is a lot, however, that cannot be seen such as leaky vessels and changes in the pigment layer between the retina and the choroid. This is where fluorescein angiography is useful

Fluorescein dye angiography - Macular Societ

Fundus fluorescein angiography and B-scan by vijay. 1. Dr. Vijay pratap singh Dept. of Ophthalmology M.L.B.M.C, Jhansi. 2. What is F.F.A? fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) is a technique for examining the circulation of the retina and choroid (parts of the fundus) by using a iv fluorescent dye and a specialized angiographic camera Fluorescein Angiography is a photographic test of the retina - the 'film' in the back of the eye. Angiography helps to see what is happening in the retina or choroid. Angiograms are important for showing any leaking blood vessels in the macula and can show up any small leaks that could not otherwise be detected Since the initial report on fluorescein angiography in 1961, 12 ophthalmologists have utilized this imaging technique to evaluate the blood vessels and circulation within the eye. The Optos is capable of producing high-resolution fluorescein angiogram images of the retinal periphery (See Figure 5). These are particularly clinically useful in. Results: The neovascular tissue area increased by 0.160 mm2 over a period of 8 months without any sign of exudation seen on optical coherence tomography or fluorescein angiography. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of a nonexudative choroidal neovascularization secondary to angioid streaks. Given that once a patient with.

Fluorescein Angiography: Uses, Side Effects, Procedure

As a result fluorescein angiography has a negligible effect on any autofluorecence imaging taken afterwards. The fluorescence that Lipofuscin shows is very weak, about 100x weaker than the retinal fluorescence seen during fluorescein angiography. As a result, any camera system must be very sensitive Fluorescein Angiography is a technique for examining the circulation of blood vessels inside the retina (an angiogram) with the help of a contrast dye (fluorescein dye). These pictures help doctors evaluate the retina and diagnose and track problems such as diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, abnormal vessel growth, swelling, leaking.

Serous retinal detachments like those seen in central serous retinopathy can also seen in patients with severe high blood pressure, age related macular degeneration, and posterior uveitis. The diagnosis of central serous retinopathy is usually established with optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and sometimes indocyanine. ICG is used to acquire an angiogram of the choroid. The choroid is the layer of blood vessels and connective tissue between the sclera (white of the eye) and retina. It supplies nutrients to the inner parts of the eye. A procedure similar to fluorescein angiography, but ICG angiography uses Indocyanine Green dye, which fluoresces in the infra-red (non-visible) light Fluorescein angiography is an indispensable part of ophthalmologic diagnosis and education, providing key insights into pathogenesis and treatment. Using nearly 900 illustrations, this new edition of the classic text/atlas covers all the clinically relevant diseases that can be diagnosed using fluorescein angiography -- and is the first to. Fluorescein angiography is an eye test that uses a special dye and camera to look at blood flow in the retina and choroid.These are the two layers in the back of the eye

Fluorescein angiography is a common procedure used in ophthalmology to diagnose and monitor diseases of the retinal and choroidal blood vessels. The most commonly seen adverse reactions to fluorescein angiography include nausea, vomiting, and urticaria The fluorescein tends to be most intense at the perimeter of the CNV; the center may show hypofluorescence. Leakage progresses into the late phase of the angiogram, and usually obscures the boundaries of the CNV (See Figure 2). Classic description of visible subretinal vascular network (a lacy network) is seen in a minority of eyes with AMD Fluorescein angiography (FA) is helpful in identifying the anomalous vasculature, particularly in the early stages of Type 2 Diagnosis of MacTel type 2 may be aided by the use of advanced imaging techniques such as fluorescein angiography, fundusAn abnormal capillary pattern is may be idedntified with fluorescein angiography.Areas of focal RPE hyperplasia (pigment.

INDICATIONS. FLUORESCITE ® Injection 10% is indicated in diagnostic fluorescein angiography or angioscopy of the retina and iris vasculature.. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Dosing. Adult Dose- The normal adult dose of FLUORESCITE ® Injection 10% (100 mg/mL) is 500 mg via intravenous administration.. For children, the dose should be calculated on the basis of 7.7 mg for each kg of actual body. Fluorescite (fluorescein injection) 10% is a diagnostic aid used in diagnostic fluorescein angiography or angioscopy of the retina and iris vasculature. Fluorescite is available in generic form. Common side effects of Fluorescite include: nausea, vomiting, upset stomach, headache, fainting, low blood pressure (hypotension) Fluorescein angiography has been used for several years to The choroidal filling was first seen as a patchy fluorescence in the nontapetal region (Fig. 1). In the early arteriolar phase the 10-20 cilioretinal vessels emerging from the optic disc periphery seemed to fill almos Fluorescein angiography is an eye test that uses a special dye and camera to look at blood flow in the retina and choroid. These are the two layers in the back of the eye. Retina. The retina is the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eyeball. Images that come through the eye's lens are focused on the retina The drops might sting a bit when they first go in. You will need to remove your contact lenses for this test, so it may help to bring your glasses (spectacles) to wear home. During the test. Your eye specialist puts a small tube (cannula) into a vein in your hand or arm. A yellow coloured dye called fluorescein is injected into the cannula

Retinal photography; Eye angiography; Angiography - fluorescein. Fluorescein angiography is an eye test that uses a special dye and camera to look at blood flow in the retina and choroid. These are the two layers in the back of the eye. How the Test is Performed. You will be given eye drops that make your pupil dilate One spontaneous abortion occurred 3 days after fluorescein angiography in a patient who was four weeks pregnant. Eight children born to toxemic mothers had low birth weights. Based on our data, we conclude that fluorescein angiography does not offer a high rate of birth anomalies or complications during pregnancy Fluorescein angiography with interpretation and report Chapter 1 For nearly 50 years, foundry photography and fluorescein angiography have been valuable in expanding our knowledge of anatomy, pathology and physiopathology of the retina and choroid.1 Initially, fluorescein angiography was mainly used as a laboratory tool and clinical research; only later was it used fo Lecture: Fluorescein Angiography. This live webinar will start with an introduction/refresher to Fluorescein Angiography basics. Then we will go into detail about its importance to certain conditions, and actual cases will be shown. Even in the age of OCT there are still important reasons to order a Fluorescein Angiography

Fluorescein Angiography. In non-ischemic CRVO, FA shows marked delay in arteriovenous transit time, which is longer than 20 seconds, masking by retinal hemorrhages, and vessel wall staining. Late staining along the large retinal veins is a characteristic finding in moderate and severe degrees of central retinal vein obstruction Fundus: Retina or the back part of the eye. Fluorescense is a property of substance to alter the wavelength of the reflected light on exciting. Angiography means recording of the angios or the blood vessels. It is basically recording and visualization of the blood vessels of the retina using fluorescein dye The folding of the choroid and RPE is responsible for the characteristic appearance seen on clinical examination and fluorescein angiography. 2,7 The RPE stretches and becomes relatively thin over the crest or elevated portion of the fold, and, conversely, becomes relatively compressed or compacted at the trough (See Figure 1). 2 On clinical. Widefield fluorescein angiography OU with multiple new branch retinal artery occlusions. 4/4/2017. Susac's syndrome is a rare, autoimmune microangiopathy involving the brain, retina, and inner ear. The condition can manifest clinically as a triad of encephalopathy, branch retinal artery occlusions (BRAO), and hearing loss, though not all. Fluorescein angiography (FA): An imaging technique where a yellow dye called sodium fluorescein is injected into a vein in the arm, allowing a special camera to record circulation in the retina and choroid in the back of the eye. This test can be very useful in diagnosing a number of retinal disorders

Video: Fluorescein Angiograph

technique of retinal fluorescein angiography in 1961.2 Fluorescein fundus angiography is a diagnostic test to assess retinal or choroidal vascular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, hypertensive retinopathy and vascular occlusions. Through this test blood flow is visualize Fluorescein Angiography images and videos enable the clinician to observe and monitor retinal blood flow details. Increased field of view up to 200˚ Thanks to the EIDON Ultra-Widefield Module it is possible to increase the field of view up to 200˚, which helps to detect signs of pathologies that start to appear in the periphery Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICG-A) are important procedures for the diagnosis and management of many problems of the retina and choroid. Although most optometrists do not perform fundus angiography, it is imperative to know when these procedures are appropriate and what limitations exist for these tests Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proved to be a valuable approach to imaging ocular vasculature and is becoming a critical method in precisely diagnosing the type and identifying the location of retinal disease.1-7 Fluorescein angiography (FA), used to examine the retinal microvasculature, to date has produced valuable diagnostic information and insights into the pathophysiology of [ Its first application for fundus angiography was by Kogure and others in 1970whenit wasusedto visualise the fundusof the owlmonkey.2 Fundusfluorescein angiography (FFA) is the accepted standard for imaging the retinal vascular and choroidal circulations. Fluorescein (molecular weight 376) is 80% protein bound; the unbound fluorescein readily.

Automatic measurement of global retinal circulation in fluorescein angiography Gang Sun, a Xiaoyan Liu, a,b, * Ling Gao, c, * Pu Zhang, c Siyuan Wang, a and Yandan Zhou c a Hunan University, College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Changsha, China b Hunan Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robot Technology in Electronic Manufacturing, Changsha, China cCentral South University, the Second. Fluorescein Angiography What is a fluorescein angiogram? A fluorescein angiogram is one of the most important tests for diagnosing retinal disease. It involves injecting a special dye (fluorescein) into a vein in your arm. The dye then travels through the systemic circulation into the blood vessels of the retina, at the back of the eye

Non-paraneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy that developedPatient presents with acute unilateral dark spot in visionDigital subtraction angiography

The global fluorescein angiography market size is expected to reach USD 617.4 million by the end of 2027, expanding at a CAGR of 2.7%, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. To study the macular features in Eales disease patients observed with fundus fluorescein angiography (FA), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). A cross-sectional study was done on treatment naïve 31 eyes (23 patients) with Eales disease. Baseline parameters such as Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit-lamp bio microscopy (SLB), indirect. Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that causes progressive vision loss. Here, 12 patients were followed up for 1-5 years with fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) to observe BCD disease progression. FFA images were collected for 12 patients with BCD who visited our clinic twice or more over a 5-year period